Category: Transgender Rage (10/17)


Education As a Form of Rebellion

I think one of the biggest ideas which Mary Shelley introduced in her novel Frankenstein that enriches Jessica Rae Fisher’s views on transgender rage and kindness is the idea that knowledge and education hold power and through education/knowledge, one possesses the strongest and most necessary tool someone can use to stand up for themselves in society. Susan Stryker acknowledges this idea in her essay “My Words to Victor Frankenstein Above the Village of Chamounix” as well and my biggest response, and advice, to Jessica would be that through continuing to be educated she can and will go much further than her oppressors and bullies. Through education she will learn the proper tools to fight back and she can use her rage to fuel her thirst for knowledge and eventually, settle her place in society. With something so simple, such as being knowledgeable, a person can rebel in a kind manner and this is something I think Stryker was trying to argue for in her essay as well.

One thing I have always personally believed is that education is power and it will be the difference between a naive view and sense of the world compared to an educated person’s who would view the world through a truthful lense. The creature in Mary Shelley’s Frankenstein is a perfect representation of this long held belief. When the creature is first created, and he sets off into society on his own, he does not know what his place in society is or even what he is. Victor Frankenstein’s abandonment lead the creature to be uneducated and without any proper sense of the world he was forced to be a part of. However, through his finding of famous works – such as Milton’s Paradise Lost – and by observing the cottagers, the creature was then able to self-educate himself  and he was able to learn about the proper way humans are meant to interact and teaches himself not to accept the improper treatment he had encountered before. Stryker states in her essay, “The monster accomplishes this resistance by mastering language in order to claim a position as a speaking subject and enact verbally the very subjectivity denied it in the specular realm.” (241) She is demonstrating that because the creature pursued his desire of knowledge he was able to create a resistance for himself because he then leveled himself with the rest of society and was able to use it to his full advantage to eventually be on top of those who oppressed him. In the novel, it was always in the creature’s intention to learn and educate himself in order to roam within society without fear and this is seen in the novel when the creature states, “I ought not to make the attempt until I had first become master of their language; which knowledge might enable me to make them overlook the deformity of my figure” (104). In this part of the novel, I concluded that Shelley was trying to argue that the way to be able to stand up for yourself within society is through knowledge. No one is ever able to take away the education and knowledge that is bestowed upon yourself and therefore, education demands respect and acknowledgement from other members of society. If a person is educated and is willing to use it to their advantage and as a tool to grow, then society can never make them feel inferior and that is something I would remind Jessica of.  

Overall, I think Jessica Rae Fisher can use her education and her willingness to grow as an individual to her full advantage just as the creature was able to throughout Frankenstein. The creature in the novel was able to highlight the issues that existed within his society after he was able to communicate and understand everything that was wrong in the first place. He would have never had a voice to do so had it not been for his desire to learn and his will to be an educated member of society. Once he had the knowledge he desired, he was able to critique the people among him and express his concerns – and I think that is exactly what Jessica has been doing but should continue to do. I believe that the only way people are going to learn is by being reminded of, and being called out on, the problems they are provoking. By the end of the novel the readers are able to see how Frankenstein and the creature are then considered equals and they parallel one another thus showing that with education one can soon overcome those with power over them. I think the idea of letting rage fuel someone’s desire to learn, and using knowledge and education as a kind way of rebelling, is very important and it is a proper way for people in any LGBT community to rebel against a society that makes them feel inferior.

-Beverly Miranda-Galindo

Stryker’s article on how the transgender should reclaim the word “monster” is insulting. I am not trans myself, so I can’t speak much about the topic; however, I have never heard the term be used towards trans, and therefore cannot agree with Stryker’s argument. She had a weak theory that I cannot accept. However, I can see the connection she makes towards Frankenstein, yet her argument is not strong enough to gain my attention overall.

By: Carmen Ibarra

As I was reading through I am Frankenstein’s Monster:  An echo of Susan Stryker’s call to action by Jessica Rae Fisher all I could think about was Victor Frankenstein’s denial and rejection of his very own creation.`”I had desired it with an ardour that far exceeded moderation; but now that I had finished, the beauty of the dream vanished, and breathless horror and disgust filled my heart.” (pg. 60)  Upon thinking of this it reminded me of stories I’ve heard from my previous transgender friends when their very own parents rejected them through their transition. I understand where Fisher is coming from when she compares herself and transgender people to the monster. “So many other transgender people have been bullied, brutalized, pushed to suicide or murdered. The villagers still refuse to accept us. We remain no more than monsters. Stryker suggests, however, that we embrace being monsters. She writes, “Like that creature, I assert my worth as a monster in spite of the conditions my monstrosity requires me to face, and redefine a life worth living,” (p 254).” (Fisher) Transgender people feel isolated and disconnected from the community just like the monster did when he was rejected from his very own creator and the villagers.

I also believe Fisher had a very important claim when she goes on to discuss how the transgender community should reclaim the negative words others place upon them. “I think we should reclaim the words monster and creature. I think that if the villagers want to see us as unnatural, that we should embrace that. I do not shy away from the scientific realities that make me a modern human, and I will not shy away from the science that can make me a monster.” When these evil words can no longer take an effect on a person they can be used to empower others and be used to embrace the uniqueness of a person.

Written by Cathryn Flores

Jessica Rae Fisher, a trans woman writer, explains through her blog post the influence that Susan Stryker’s essay had on her as a queer, trans woman. Stryker’s essay expresses the similarities between the transsexual body and the body of the creature in Mary Shelly’s Frankenstein. In the novel, while reading Frankenstein’s journal, the creature learns the particulars of his creation and expresses that “the increase of knowledge only discovered to me what a wretched outcast I was”, (Shelly 125). This statement is crucial to understanding the struggles faced by transgenders and the way society views them as “abnormal species”. Susan Stryker states that “the transsexual body is a product of medical science. It is a technological construction. It is flesh torn apart and sewn together again in a shape other than that in which it was born”, (Stryker 338). Understanding the fundamental, physical differences between the bodies of transgenders can lead to the realization that there are positive aspects to being different from the rest of society.

After reading Stryker’s essay, Fisher comes to understand that trans people may never be perceived as “normal beings of society”, and comes to terms with this idea. Fisher says, “I think that if the villagers want to see us an unnatural, that we should embrace that. I do not shy away from the scientific realities that make me a modern human”, (Fisher). It is evident that the feelings of rage and disappointment felt by the creature in Frankenstein are also the same emotions felt by transgenders. Knowing this, Fisher comes to the conclusion that trans people can use this idea to empower themselves and live a life free of being self-conscious about other’s opinions. Rather than internalizing this rage and hate for other people that do not understand the constant struggles the transgender community goes through, the writer suggests that they use this rage to make a change in the world by expressing their right for an equal pursuit of happiness.

Jessica’s reflection on the difference between a “naturally-birthed” human body and the body of a trans person leads to insight on the mind-set that trans people need to have in order to combat those who discriminate against them in society. The first step needed to be able to use this information to empower the trans community is accepting that a trans body is a creation of science, one that was a product of medical procedures. Fisher continues to say that although society may be alarmed by the differences between trans bodies, this is nothing to be ashamed of. Instead, this is something to be proud and aware of. Knowing that similarities exist between the feelings felt by the “monster” in Frankenstein and transgender people, individuals within the trans community can use this insight to come to a conclusion on how to react when faced with adversity within society.

The term “monster” gets thrown around more often than people think. It is consistently used as a form of degradation. This is especially obvious in Mary Shelley’s Frankenstein where the Victor Frankenstein’s creation is constantly called a “monster” by the people that come across it. One instance where the Creature’s rage is apparent is when he encounters young William Frankenstein and subsequently kills him.

“‘Hideous monster! let me go. My papa is a Syndic–he is M. Frankenstein–he will punish you. You dare not keep me” (126).

This elicits a reaction from the Creature that is full of rage. Here is a child throwing around words that are more harmful than he can imagine. Which brings me to Jessica Rae Fisher’s piece on Transgender Rage and Kindness. Jessica talks about how words like “monster” have been used in reference to transgender individuals and the negative effects this use of the word have had on these individuals. She makes a point to reference a statistic from the 2015 U.S. Transgender Survey that puts it into perspective how much these words affect transgender individuals.

These words have the power to further isolate individuals and make them feel as even more different than they already feel. This sort of emotion is rampant in the novel as well. The Creature in that same moment also experiences rage among other emotions. It has been subjected to constant verbal abuse that can only lead to a tipping point.

“Can you wonder that such thoughts transported me with rage? I only wonder that at that moment, instead of venting my sensations in exclamations and agony, I did not rush among mankind, and perish in the attempt to destroy them” (127).

The Creature most certainly felt isolated and beyond that it felt rage. Regardless of what the Creature did it would never be fully accepted or at least that is the way it saw itself.

Perhaps reclaiming words so they no longer have the power to hurt people is the way to make an initial change. Ultimately this issue goes beyond words but that is certainly a start.

By Diana Lara

 

Image result for frankenstein and monster

In Jessica Fisher’s blog, “I am Frankenstein’s Monster: An echo of Susan Stryker’s call to action” she evaluates Mary Shelley’s “Frankenstein” through a lens of the gender identity of Victor Frankenstein and the creature. Fisher asserts in the novel Victor is a representation queer, transgender and asexual, pan romanticism in the form intimidation and discreteness they go through. The creature itself is a representation of the emotional and isolation they are faced with in the real world. Victor Frankenstein is unconscious, but through his actions, the reader is able to become unaware of manifestation between Victor and his suppressed sexual life.

At first glance in the novel, the relationship between Victor Frankenstein and Henry Clerval is that of childhood friends which are built with trust and happiness. It is a common belief in society that friends are people who individuals who build bonds and are everlasting. However, through Fisher’s lens of “Frankenstein” an alternate perspective is shown. In “Frankenstein” when Victor departures to the University of Ingolstadt Henry begs his father to allow him to leave with Victor, but is not allowed, “He said little; when he spoke, I read in his kindling eye and in animated glance a restrained but firm resolve, chained with miserable details” (Shelley 51) Victor describes Henry using the words, “kindling eyes”, “animated glance” and “miserable”. Traditional gender roles in the seventeenth century are between a man and a woman, yet Victor begins to show attraction and affection towards his childhood friend. Victor describes Henry through his physical feature at that moment asserting that he had “Kindling eyes” and “animated glance” meaning that he finds Henry charming. These words are usually said to a woman, not a man. Victor exposes his subconscious thought in this particular moment, talking in the second person.  He is hiding sexual identity from everyone, he is attracted to his same gender rather than the opposite, but is afraid of exposing it. Furthermore, he begins to show emotion through the use of a long sentence and sentence structure, semicolons, and commas. As the sentence proceeds the reader is met with first, a semicolon which he states that Henry did not say much and brings the sentence to an untimely stop. Victor than continues after this pause and states three more words than the sentence comes to another stop, having sorrow for his friend. The sentence after begins to flow but continues, but then again comes to another stop. The comas emphasis Victor emotion running high as he struggles to finish a sentence and must come to stop to allow him not to break down. Sadness running through his mind, he can not bear the feeling of departing from his friend, but he is able to leave Elizabeth without having so much emotion. Further, in the novel, Henry visits Victor and finds him very ill and he proceeds to, help him heal the whole winter, “how good you are to me. This whole winter, instead of being spent in the study”(Shelley 64) he was “consumed in a sick room” (Shelley 64) asserting that they both care immensely for each other. Victor is brought back to life by his friend and the happiness that he feels just by seeing him, never does Elizabeth come to his mind. Victor only shining a light on his feelings when he is seen with Henry. Here is were Susan Stryker’s asserts that a person who is transgender life becomes difficult as they are not welcomed and are unsociable in society. Here is were Fisher asserts that “Filisa shouldn’t have faced the loneliness that rejection no doubt brought.” In society many view sexual identity as a mental illness, to which Victor is not willing to sacrifice his straight image in society as he will be met with backlash. Victor keeps his sexual life private and is not willing to expose his affection towards Henry as what awaits is loneliness and rejection. Though his affection towards Henry is seen through the whole novel and the connection to the creature and the purpose of its creation.

Upon the creature being created, we see a sense of confusion with the world and the search for acceptance from any human. He begins to head to Geneva hoping that his creation will understand hand hears what he has to say and ultimately accept him. When the monster begins to tell his story he mentions an encounter he had with humans, a small little girl slips into a stream and is about to drown and he comes to save her, yet the man that she is with sees a “monster” in his eyes and continues to shoot him, instead of acknowledging what he did. The creature then continues to state, “This is the reward of my benevolence! I had saved a human being from destruction, and, as a recompense, I now writhed under the miserable pain of a wound,” (Shelley 125) Full with frustration and confusion as he uses an exclamation mark to emphasis on why did this occur to him, the creature had nothing but good intention. Hoping to be “normal” through his actions, yet finds that it is not possible for him to ever be normal. The creature was hoping to gain acceptance but was left even more emotionally and physically hurt, paralleling with Fisher’s critique of the situation Filisa’s suicide. She asserts that “What drove her to such despair was the exclusion she experienced in Seattle’s queer community, some members of which opposed Filisa’s participation because of her transsexuality — even though she identified as and lived as a bisexual woman.” Fisher addressing that trans and queer can never be viewed as normal, which creates rage or  “Transgender Rage”. Filisa was doing what she believed to be an environment where she was going to accepted, she was faced with a barrier. Filisa was opposed by others whom she thought would be accepting. As the creature could not understand why he could not be human, he continues to take this experience and leave to Geneva with anger in his mind. A parallel exists as Victor who is the creator of the creature does not accept the creature. Which creates this rage in Filisa and the creature.

Levit Martinez

 

Bianca Lopez Munoz

Isolation is on of Frankenstein’s biggest themes. We see it through Victor’s ambitious scientific endevour and within the creature as they wander around the world. As Stryker mentioned, trans individuals are isolated not only from ‘normal’ society, but also the LGBT+ community AND as Jessica said, this non-acceptance and lonliness is what causes 40% of trans folks to attempt suicide.

“I was dependant of none, and related to none ‘The path of my departure was free; and there was none to lament my annihilation. My person was hideous and my stature gigantic: what did this mean? Who was I? What was I? Whence did I come? What was my destination? These questions continually recurred, but I was unable to solve them” (Shelley, 115).

The creature did not have a person or community to depend on as a support system, they only had themselves to teach itself and try and define who they are. But based on what they learned from books and watching society, they concluded that they are unatural and a monster. ‘there was none to lament my annihilation’ reminds me not just of that statistic about suicide but also of the violence that threatens trans people’s lives on the daily. People are murdered everyday and I feel rage within me that people don’t care enough about the issue. The creature describes themselves as ‘hideous’ and ‘gigantic’ this sort of reminds me of the gender dysphoria that trans people often feel about their body. Gender dysphoria is an uneasy, distressing feeling that a person sometimes feels when their genitals or secondary sex characteristics do not match their internal gender identity. Not only does this cause a lot of anxiety, but when a trans individual doesn’t ‘pass’ as the gender they are wanting to present, it can possibly spark violence against them and this can cause more anxiety and depression. The ‘who, what, where, whence, and why’ is the creature trying to give and find themselves an identity and a purpose. They stuggle to answer these questions because they don’t have the answers within the books and the ‘normal society’ and they know no one like themselves, so they are very isolated. Throughout this blog post I’ve been refering to the creature as ‘they’ instead of ‘it’ as I have done in my past blog posts and I find that interesting because through the trans lense of both Stryker’s and Jessica’s pieces, I became sort of aware of my language so, by refering to the creature as ‘they’, it feels like I’m doing them more justice than identifying them as an just an ‘it’. And referring to them as a ‘he’ hasn’t sat with me well in all of my analysis of this book so I think I’ll continue to refer to the creature with they/them pronouns.

Frankenstein

As for the oddities I’ve noticed in the original 1831 Frontispiece to Frankenstein, this might be my own perverse eye, BUT, the window in the background seems to have about 7 possible phallic symbols. The creature is looking down,confused, possibly between their legs. I’m assuming this is the scene where the creature is animated and Victor runs away. Understandably, the creature is confused and disoriented from just being ‘born’ but the confusion and the direction that the confusion if directed at could be interpreted as a trans person being dysphoric/confused/uneasy as to why they have they genitals that have when it doesn’t coorelate with their internal identity.

See the source image

In Mary Shelley’s Frankenstein, we know that the Creature is victim to a society that alienates it because of its difference in appearance. But what does this have in connection with gender and sexuality as described through the eyes of a transsexual individual?

Jessica Rae Fisher, a trans woman writer, voices her journey in finding herself through both Frankenstein and an essay written by Susan Striker within her blog post I am Frankenstein’s Monster: An echo of Susan Striker’s call to action. She speaks about the comparing of transgender people to Victor Frankenstein’s creation and how “[she] was enthralled” when first hearing of the idea. Fisher’s experience with this idea began with her exposure to an excerpt in Striker’s essay, My Words To Victor Frankenstein Above The Village Of Chamounix: Performing Transgender Rage,  that spoke about “a transsexual woman in Seattle [who] wrote in her journal, ‘I wish I was anatomically ‘normal’ so I could go swimming…But no, I’m a mutant, Frankenstein’s monster'” (Striker, 246). What really stood out to Fisher was the fact that this woman was driven to suicide two months after documenting this thought and it made her wonder, back when she was a 19 or 20 year old reading about it, whether she “would live past 22”. Although she has now surpassed the age she doubted living to, Fisher stresses that the transgender community is yet to be accepted and instead “remain no more than monsters”. Despite this, Fisher clings to other excerpts from Striker’s essay that speak of “asserting [ones] worth as a monster” and “[allowing your] rage [to] inform your actions and your actions transform you as you struggle to transform the world” (Striker, 254).

Now, you may be thinking, “How exactly does this connect with Frankenstein?’. Well, in the same way that Fisher explains what transgender individuals go though when dealing with society, Shelley depicts when writing about the Creatures first encounter with humans. The Creature, abandoned by its creator and left to fend for its own, encounters some villagers of which it frightens causing “the whole village [to be] roused; some fled, some attacked [it]” (Shelley, 98). This treatment of the Creature is similar to that of the woman from Seattle that Fisher speaks about in her blog post when she says, “What drove her to such despair was the exclusion she experienced in Seattle’s queer community, some members of which opposed Filisa’s participation because of her transsexuality”.  Here, although not physically, this woman was attacked like the Creature was at the hands of the villagers. Similarly, Victor abandoned his creation and left it to fend for its own the night he finally succeeded in giving the Creature life, “not [daring] to return to the apartment which [he] inhabited” (Shelley, 61). This mirrors Fisher’s information regarding The Seattle Bisexual Women’s Network when they “announced that if it admitted transsexuals, it would no longer be a woman’s organization” and that “the boys can take care of themselves”. Both this woman in Seattle and the Creature in Frankenstein were left on their own, alienated because of their subjective “differences” to society.

In the end, it is undoubtedly true that we live in a society full of unacceptance and exclusion for all those of which fail to conform to the “norm”. If you are different to what is viewed as “common” what is in store for you is labeling and use of false pronouns and “neopronouns”. However, Fisher makes it clear that what is to be learned here is “we should reclaim the words monster and creature. I think that if the villager want to see us as unnatural, that we should embrace that”. Being different is something that has proven to be difficult, but accepting that you are not “normal” is what will ultimately help you live though it.

– Juanita Espinoza

 

In Jessica Fisher’s article, “I am Frankenstein’s Monster: An Echo of Susan Stryker’s Call to Action”, she describes the inevitable perilous lives of marginalized people, particularly, the transgender community. Moreover, she purports that the antidote to this chaotic life is the use of their “transgender rage” -fueled by the reclamation of words used to demean the transgender community-  in a conducive manner to somehow change society. This means of combatting the chaos that transgender people will inevitably face is not only detrimental to the advancement of their cause but also to their personal development.

In Susan Striker’s essay, – which was the inspiration of Fisher’s article- she compares the creature in Mary Shelley’s Frankenstein to the transgender body. Both Fisher and Striker use the words “monster” to describe themselves almost as a stand against the oppressive society which will inexorably judge them. “The transexual body is an unnatural body. It is the product of medical science. It is a technological construction. It is flesh torn apart and sewn together again in a shape other than that in which it was born” (Striker p. 238). Furthermore, both Stryker and Fisher use the reclamation of words like this to “fuel their rage” which they would eventually use to further their cause. She states, “For me, it is time to dull the impact these words have when used against us. It is well worth embracing who we are as monsters. It isn’t our responsibility to make the villagers understand or accept us, and maybe, in fact, we can’t.” Similarly, this sentiment is expressed in Frankenstein by the creature, “My feelings were those of rage and revenge. I, like the arch-fiend, bore a hell within me;  from that moment I declared everlasting war against the species, and, more than all, against him who had formed me, and sent me forth to this insupportable misery.”(Shelley, 121).  This is not a tenable solution- as evident in the quote due to the chaotic and menacing nature in which the creature speaks such words- to the chaos which the transgender community will face, this “solution” can only lead to either further alienation of the transgender community or the tyrannous imposition of the admiration of the trans community. In an attempt to showcase the struggle which trans people face in western society, Fisher cites a case where a boy in psychiatric care, who was alienated because he was trans, committed suicide. While this is an evident case of the horrendous malevolence which some people might use against others, the cause of this boy’s death is having more to do with his own reaction and feeling of despair to the alienation which he had faced.

One should seek to adopt responsibility and focus on self-development and not dwell and pity oneself as a cause of life’s various misfortunes. Otherwise, one will fall into the domain of intense tribalism and collectivist ideology which can only result in the alienation of certain groups or the tyrannous rule of other groups or both. Yes, life is treacherous and full of evil fueled by malevolence, Yes, people are oppressed- although not as much as people would like to have you think-, Yes western society is unfair, but one is much stronger and formidable than one would assume. One is capable of being the remedy to their own suffering. One is capable of changing society effectively and incrementally by changing oneself first so that one is able to remain headstrong in the face of any adversity that we will face. The point is that we are all capable of being formidable and tenacious individuals through the adoption of responsibility and a focus on self- improvement.

 

 

 

by Steven Gonzalez

Image result for transgender pain

By Mahealani LaRosa

Reading Jessica Rae Fisher’s I Am Frankenstein’s Monster: An Echo of Susan Stryker’s Call to Action as a female, as a victim of bullying, and as a survivor of sexual, mental, and verbal abuse was very difficult. I could never fathom the idea that I understand the pain that transgender people go through, but I DO understand the pain of the experiences I went through listed above. Although I found it difficult to read, I actually was interested in a lot of the points Fisher and Stryker made. Jessica pushes forward the idea of taking back words like “monster and creature” to describe transgender people. Stryker further emphasizes this idea by going into depth about the real definitions of these words and how people should even be proud to be called these things, even going as far to say “words like ‘creature,’ ‘monster,’ and ‘unnatural’ need to be reclaimed by the transgendered. By embracing and accepting them, even piling one on top of another, we may dispel their ability to harm us” (240). I feel like this is a very crucial idea, especially in modern society. People still use words like “gay” as a negative thing, so there is a lot of work that needs to be done in regards to reclaiming words that were originally slurs and insults and making them positive and affirming instead. Susan Stryker neatly explains this in her essay My Words to Victor Frankenstein Above the Village of Chamounix, saying that “transsexuality more than any other transgender practice or identity represents the prospect of destabilizing the foundational presupposition of fixed genders upon which a politics of personal identity depends” (238). This relates to Mary Shelley’s novel Frankenstein because one of the most important characters, the creature, is seemingly genderless. Although repeatedly referred to as a man, it seems to have feminine features, and honestly doesn’t’ need to conform to the these “fixed genders”.

As I mentioned in a previous blog post, Victor Frankenstein does not want to create a female mate for the creature because they would want “children, and a race of devils would be propagated upon the earth” (144). We can assume that in order for the creature to mate and have children with this female creature means that he is a man, and he has male genitalia. However, in modern society, having a penis does not make you a man. This is mostly apparent in cases of transgender people. Women born in a man’s body constantly have to go through people not understanding who they are, mostly based on their genitalia. Genitals do not define gender. The Merriam-Webster dictionary says gender is “the state of being male or female (typically used with reference to social and cultural differences rather than biological ones)” which in my opinion is completely incorrect. Sex is the state of being male or female. Gender is a spectrum, and I honestly believe it is TRULY an individual choice. Gender is whatever you as a singular person want it to be. What Stryker and Fisher are saying is that being a ‘monster’ or ‘creature’ is sort of like a kind of gender, but it also represents being transgender. The LGBTQ+ community is just like any other community, it excludes anything that is found to be ‘too’ different. In this case, it is transgender people. In Frankenstein, it is the creature. In this way, the creature and transgender people are linked. They are a type of gender that is misunderstood and discriminated against. The thing is, the creature does not have to commit to being the man. He is restrained by societies constructed ideas of sex and gender being these strict ideas of only male and female. Stryker says she “want[s] to lay claim to the dark power of [her] monstrous identity without using it as a weapon against others or being wounded by it [herself]”(240), so she is basically explaining how she is going to turn the hate and pain people give her into power and strength. Overall, this is what we should all do. Pain will always be something we internalize, but if we simultaneously reflect inwardly while also speaking out against the inflictor, we create a power that no one can stop.

In regards to the original cover of Frankenstein, I think it has a lot to do with the sexual organs of the creature. The creature is looking downwards at their genitals, as if they are surprised or shocked by what they see. It leaves the viewer questioning gender and sex already. It is also interesting to see the creature hovering over a skeleton while Frankenstein is running away. It is similar to all that we have been talking about. Victor is running from the reanimated life he created while also running from the shroud of death that will follow him for the remainder of his life. He is running from his mother and the creature he made to try to symbolize her. However, in terms of this blog post, it is most important to focus on the part where the creature looks at their genitals in such a stunned way. I wonder what made the creature so surprised…